People are different, this is normal, some behave recklessly and stand out from the masses. Do you know who a sociopath is? Knowing the definition and signs of sociopathy, you may recognize this personality in yourself.
Symptoms of sociopathy in adults and children
Dissocial personality disorder is a mental disorder that occurs due to improper upbringing, negative environmental influences and unfavorable living conditions. Pathology is not age-related, and children are the most vulnerable. Sociopathy manifests itself by ignoring social norms, aggressiveness, impulsive behavior, and inability to form attachments. These are not all symptoms of dissocial personality disorder.
12 signs of a sociopath
- Inadequate actions. Sociopath ignores social norms and constantly goes beyond behavior. When making a decision, he does not think about the consequences of his actions.
- Mendacity. The sociopath is constantly lying, even in cases where you can do without it. Incredible stories seem very plausible, it is problematic to catch him in a lie.
- Criminal behavior. To get out of a difficult situation, a sociopath would not hesitate to break the law. His behavior clearly notes notes of cruelty, audacity and adventurism. A thief, a crook, a murderer is a good example of sociopaths.
- Lack of conscience. Sociopath does not feel a sense of shame or guilt for their actions, even negative moral or physical nature.
- Manipulation. Sociopath likes to be the leader of a group of weak people. Since such people are characterized by a passive attitude in life, it affects their thinking and actions.
- Indifference. Sociopath does not build a close relationship. It is not surprising, because he does not feel pity, respect, sympathy and love.
- High pride. The sociopath loves praise, but hates and ignores criticism. He needs admiration and attention and seeks universal acceptance.
- Undue risk. The sociopath likes to take risks, because he finds the life of an ordinary person incredibly boring. In pursuit of thrills, he often takes action with sexual overtones.
- Aggression. Sociopath seeks to start a fight even over trifles. He often has trouble. He realizes that, being a loner, he is not able to cope with united people.
- Intimidation. The constant demonstration of moral and physical superiority over people and animals is another sign of dissocial disorder. The sociopath will have ill-wishers.
- Failure to learn from mistakes. Sociopath does not make conclusions. Even after a serious mistake, he will not change the course of action and behavior, and will again tread on the well-known rake.
- Damage to someone else's property. The desire to destroy the values belonging to others - a serious challenge to society.
These symptoms are present to some extent in every person, but in people with dissocial personality disorder they are much more pronounced. If your friends have characteristic signs, only a professional psychologist can make a specific diagnosis.
Causes of Sociopathy
According to statistics, signs of dissocial personality disorder are present in 15% of people undergoing treatment in psychiatric clinics. Symptoms of pathology are expressed in prisoners serving sentences for cruelty and aggression among people with alcohol and drug addiction. The causes of sociopathy in adults and children have long been of interest to scientists, because the disease harms both patients and society.
- There is an opinion that the disease is inherited, like the shape of the ears or the color of the eyes. Children sociopaths tend to develop the disease, regardless of education.
- The development of sociopathy contributes to the combination of educational features, genetic predisposition, biological factors and the environment.
- Scientists failed to establish the biological causes of the disease. But they noticed that the brain of a sociopath functions differently. The patient has a poorly developed part of the brain that is responsible for recognizing, responding to threatening or sad facial expressions, and learning from mistakes.
- In addition to genetic predisposition, the appearance of pathology leads to a negative impact from a peer or a traumatic event that happened in life.
- An imbalance of hormones, which, for example, occurs in women before menstruation, can contribute to the development of a dysocial disorder. However, to explain the occurrence of the disease only such deviations will not work.
It is impossible to say exactly what causes the disease. Scientists are constantly working in this direction.
Types of Sociopaths
Previously, people with dissociation were called psychopaths, but later sociopathy became an independent pathology. The life of a sociopath is reduced to the satisfaction of their own needs. He does not consider the opinion of others, does not want and does not know how to interact with society.
Psychologists distinguish the following types of sociopaths:
- Passive (Latent). He contacts people only when necessary. Recognizing is problematic, as he skillfully hides apathy. This is possible in the case when he demonstrates an amoral essence.
- Active. Not hiding. Seeing such a person, one gets the impression that he is a disgusting person, characterized by unprincipledness, arrogance, selfishness and immorality. His guilt is not there, it is caused by a mental disorder.
Sociopaths of different types differ in behavior, but their essence is similar.
Treatment of sociopaths and sociopathies
I wonder how sociopaths and sociopathy are treated? Is it possible to get rid of the disease by resorting to the help of psychiatrists? Exciting questions Unfortunately, there is nothing to please about this topic.
There is no effective way to combat dissocial personality disorder in the world. It is only possible to reduce the severity of symptoms. For example, cognitive-behavioral treatment, focused on control, leading to illegal actions of thoughts, reduces the number of cases of antisocial behavior.
The techniques used to treat mental disorders in the case of sociopathy are ineffective and sometimes even harmful. Thus, effective ways of dealing with depression or an eating disorder worsen the symptoms of sociopathy.The best results are shown by psychotherapy aimed at teaching the sociopath the rules of behavior in society, taking into account the laws, current restrictions and moral norms.
There are no medical drugs to treat the disease. Medications only stop the associated symptoms. If sociopathy is accompanied by a depressive condition, doctors use antidepressants. Patients prone to aggression are credited with mood stabilizers.
Is sociopathy and social phobia the same thing?
People often confuse sociopathy with social phobia, believing that it is the same thing. In fact, these are different diseases. To verify this, it is enough to consider the concepts of sociopath and social phobia.
- Sociopath is an aggressive-minded person who does not recognize moral norms accepted by society. The patient does not want and can not adapt to society and often leads a dangerous life.
- Social phobia is a public fearing person. For him, speaking to an audience is worse than death. He is afraid of people, afraid of building relationships, afraid of making contact. Excessive isolation and caution prevent social phobia to establish verbal communication.
The difference is phenomenal. The first case is a devil-may-care attitude to society and its rules, the second is the fear of everything and everyone. A sociopath, unlike a social phobia, carries a potential threat to people.
Let's talk about the famous sociopaths who left a noticeable mark on history. It turns out that there are many of them, we just do not know that they belong to the category of people with dissocial personality disorder.
In real life
Adolf Hitler is a good example of a sociopath. The basis of his political ideology was the principle of leaderism - the ideal basis for the development of sociopathy. Hitler did not have the usual system of values, and the life of people treated with disdain. Without feelings of guilt, anxiety and remorse, he broke through to power.
Stories are known and other famous sociopaths - tyrant Stalin, serial killer Chikatilo, the Roman emperor Caligula.
Their category also includes:
- religious fanatics who infringe upon the rights of representatives of other religious denominations,
- personalities that infect others with sexually transmitted diseases,
- cruel ladies collector adventures and throwing girls.
To the cinema
Modern cinema likes to put the label "sociopath" on screen characters. Thanks to the efforts of screenwriters, dissocial personality disorder has become a fashion trend. Dr. House, Sherlock Holmes, Dexter, Hannibal Lecter - an incomplete list of heroes, whose mental portrait is fully consistent with the description of a sociopath.
Television tries to form an opinion that various forms of psychopathy are stylish, relevant and emphasize individuality. It's a delusion. Sociopathy is a serious disorder leading to a complete and conscious disregard for the norms of society.